Beneficial Cargo Owner (BCO) – Person or legal entity that owns or has title to the freight being transported. BCOs may use third parties such as IMCs to negotiate transportation services and rates on their behalf.
Blocking or Bracing – Wood, metal or other approved supports to keep freight in place in or on railcars, containers trailers.
Bobtail – Motor carrier slang indicating a non-revenue movement without a trailer or chassis and container attached.
Chassis – A rectangular trailer with twist-locks that provides the framework on which a shipping container is attached for road transport. Chassis come in a variety of sizes and configurations depending on the weight and length of the container. They are owned by leasing companies, motor carriers, railroads, shippers, and some steamship lines.
Container on Flat Car (COFC) – The movement of a container on a railroad flatcar without the container being mounted on a chassis.
Container Yard – A yard used for storage of containers when not in use.
Demurrage – A penalty for exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal. Also a charge for undue detention of transportation equipment or carriers in port while loading or unloading.
Detention Charges – Penalties assessed against a shipper for the delayed return of a carrier’s equipment beyond allowable free time. This is usually equipment picked up by the shipper at the load port for the purpose of filling a container for shipment and held at the shipper’s plant or warehouse for an excessive period of time. Detention charges may also be assessed against a consignee who fails to return stripped containers to a carrier within an allowable timeframe.
Domestic Container – Containers 53 or 48 foot in length that travel by rail or truck in North America.
Double-Stack – The movement of containers on rail cars that enable one container to be stacked on another container for better ride quality and car utilization; special rail well cars enable containers to be stacked one atop another.
Drayage – Transportation of freight between a cargo facility terminal and a customer’s facility. Also known as cartage or haulage. There are six types of drayage:
Drayman – A person employed to pick up or drop off a container or trailer at an intermodal terminal.
Driver Assist – The loading/unloading of a container or trailer when a drayman is required to assist.
Dry Run – When a drayman goes to a ramp to pick up a container and for some reason leaves without one.
Dunnage – The material used to protect or support freight in containers or trailers.
Equipment Interchange Report (EIR) – A document executed by a motor carrier and a terminal transferring possession of a container or chassis from one to the other, and showing equipment condition at time of transfer.
Flip – The transfer of a container from the ground to a chassis for street or highway transport.
Flip Charges – Cost assessed to a shipper when the railroad is required to provide an unnecessary or extra flip. An example of this is when a private container is grounded off of a train and no chassis is available at that time. A flip charge is assessed because a flip is required at a time after the train is unloaded.